|Subhash Chandra Bose or Netaji Biography and Facts|
Biography and Facts about Subhash Chandra Bose, also known as Netaji
Subhas Chandra Bose, affectionately called Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian freedom struggle. Although Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru have earned much of the credit for the successful completion of the Indian freedom struggle, Subash Chandra Bose’s contribution is no less. He has been denied his rightful place in the annals of Indian history. He founded the Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) to overthrow the British Empire in India and went on to acquire legendary status among the Indian masses.
Subhas Chandra Bose was born on January 23, 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa. His father, Janaki Nath Bose, was a famous lawyer and his mother, Prabhavati Devi, a pious and religious lady. Subhas Chandra Bose was the ninth child among fourteen siblings. Subhas Chandra Bose was a brilliant student from childhood. He passed the Calcutta Provincial Matriculation Examination and graduated with a First Class in Philosophy from Scottish Churches College in Calcutta. He was heavily influenced by the teachings of Swami Vivekananda and was known for his patriotic zeal as a student. To fulfill the wishes of his parents, he went to England in 1919 to compete for the Indian Civil Service. In England, he sat for the Indian Civil Service competitive exam in 1920 and placed fourth in order of merit. However, Subhas Chandra Bose was deeply disturbed by the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre and left his Civil Service apprenticeship halfway to return to India in 1921.
After returning to India, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose came under the influence of Mahatma Gandhi and joined the Indian National Congress. Following Gandhiji’s instructions, he began to work with Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das, whom he later recognized as his political guru. He soon showed his leadership mettle and worked his way up the Congressional hierarchy. In 1928, the Congress-appointed Motilal Nehru Committee declared in favor of the Domination State, but Subhas Chandra Bose along with Jawaharlal Nehru opposed it, both stating that they would be satisfied with nothing less than India’s complete independence. Subhas also announced the formation of the Independence League. Subhas Chandra Bose was imprisoned during the Civil Disobedience movement in 1930. He was released in 1931 after the signing of the Gandhi-Irwin pact. He protested against the Gandhi-Irwin pact and opposed the suspension of the Civil Disobedience movement, especially when Bhagat Singh and his associates were hanged.
Subash Chandra Bose was soon arrested again under the infamous Bengal Regulation. After a year, he was released on medical grounds and banished from India to Europe. He took steps to establish centers in different European capitals with a view to promoting political-cultural contacts between India and Europe. Defying the ban on his entry into India, Subash Chandra Bose returned to India and was again arrested and jailed for a year. After the 1937 General Election, Congress assumed power in seven states, and Subash Chandra Bose was released. Shortly thereafter he was elected president of the Haripura Congress Session in 1938. During his tenure as president of Congress, he spoke of planning in concrete terms and created a National Planning Committee in October of that year. At the end of his first term, the presidential election for the Tripuri Congress session took place in early 1939. Subhas Chandra Bose was re-elected, defeating Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramayya, who had been backed by Mahatma Gandhi and the Committee of Congress work. The clouds of World War II were on the horizon and he brought a resolution to give the British six months to hand over India to the Indians, otherwise there would be a revolt. There was much opposition to his rigid position, and he resigned as president and formed a progressive group known as the Forward Bloc.
Subhas Chandra Bose now started a mass movement against the use of Indian resources and men for the great war. There was a tremendous response to his call and he was placed under house arrest in Calcutta. In January 1941, Subhas Chandra Bose disappeared from his home in Calcutta and arrived in Germany via Afghanistan. Working on the maxim that “an enemy’s enemy is a friend”, he sought the cooperation of Germany and Japan against the British Empire. In January 1942, he began his regular broadcasts from Radio Berlin, which aroused great enthusiasm in India. In July 1943 he arrived in Singapore from Germany. In Singapore, he took the reins of the Indian Independence Movement in East Asia from Rash Behari Bose and organized the Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army) made up mainly of Indian prisoners of war. He was hailed as Netaji by the military as well as the Indian civilian population in East Asia. Azad Hind Fauj headed to India to free it from British rule. Along the way he liberated the Andeman and Nicobar Islands. The I.N.A. Headquarters moved to Rangoon in January 1944. Azad Hind Fauj crossed the Burmese border and stopped on Indian soil on March 18, 1944.
However, the defeat of Japan and Germany in World War II forced INA to withdraw and it was unable to achieve its goal. Subhas Chandra Bose reportedly died in a plane crash over Taipeh, Taiwan (Formosa) on August 18, 1945. Although it is widely believed that he was still alive after the plane crash, not much information about him could be found.
Source: West Bengal Council Of Higher Secondary Education, Direct News 99